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Michael Robinson [00:00:00] Our society was responsible, in a very systematic, cold-blooded way, for the extermination of wolves.

Michael Robinson [00:00:06] It wasn't just a happenstance. Oh, this is inconveniencing me. Let's kill it.

Michael Robinson [00:00:10] It was like, okay, how do we get to the last one? How do we manufacture poison where the bitterness of the strychnine is concealed by the quarter-inch of fat on the outside of the bait, so the animal swallows it, but not too big that it bites into it.

Michael Robinson [00:00:26] You know, they thought this through very carefully.

Michael Robinson [00:00:29] And I think that there's a level, I guess I would call it a level of evil, even though I'll recognize certainly a large substrate of ignorance that I guess has to be credited to people 100 years ago who were involved in that.

Michael Robinson [00:00:42] But I, you know, in 2024, with the collapse of ecosystems, I'm just going to go ahead and call it, in my value system, a bad thing, wicked, evil.

Michael Robinson [00:00:51] And I think that coming to grips with the wrong course that our society has taken, in a democracy where the government is acting on behalf of all of us, at least in theory, I think that's an important thing for our society. I think it's important to confront the things that we did wrong, the things where we hurt others, where we did damage, ultimately to ourselves, but certainly to the wolves and to the ecosystems.

Michael Robinson [00:01:15] And wolf reintroduction, yes, it follows the Endangered Species Act. It's the law of the land. We've got to recover endangered species, and we got to conserve the ecosystems on which they depend. And wolf conservation certainly does conserve ecosystems.

Michael Robinson [00:01:29] But I think, for our society, there's another element. It's a maturity. It's a coming to grips with what we did, even if none of us who are, you know, around now were working on this program in 1924 or 1929 or whatever.

Michael Robinson [00:01:42] But it was our society. It was our government. It was done on, supposedly, at least theoretically, on our behalf.

Michael Robinson [00:01:48] And by repudiating that, by saying that was wrong, we're going to fix it, we have taken a step forward in maturity as a society in moral responsibility.

Michael Robinson [00:01:57] And that can't hurt, as we make decisions in the future in a, in a very complex and vexing world.